Disk Partitioning & Formatting Reference

Refer to this table as a reference on sector/cluster size leading to maximum storage per LUN:
 

Cluster size

NTFS Max Size

  512 bytes             

  2,199,023,255,040 (2TB)

 1024 bytes

  4,398,046,510,080 (4TB)

 2048 bytes

  8,796,093,020,160 (8TB)

 4096 bytes

 17,592,186,040,320 (16TB) Default cluster size

 8192 bytes

 35,184,372,080,640 (32TB)

16384 bytes  

 70,368,744,161,280 (64TB)

32768 bytes

140,737,488,322,560 (128TB)

65536 bytes            

281,474,976,654,120 (256TB)

On Partitioning, the caveat is that we cannot use MBR as its limitation is (2^32)-1 sectors * 512 bytes/cluster = 2,199,023,255,040 bytes or 2TB. Instead, we use GPT (Guid Partition Table). GPT uses 64 bits for logical block addresses, allowing a maximum disk size of 264 sectors. For disks with 512-byte sectors, the maximum size is 9.4 ZB (9.4 × 10²¹ bytes) or 8 ZiB (264 sectors × 29bytes per sector). Booting on a GPT disk may require UEFI and 64bit OS. If such disk is dedicated as storage, then GTP trumps MBR.
 
On Formatting, “NTFS maximum theoretical limit on the size of individual files is 16 EiB (16 × 10246 or 264 bytes) minus 1 KB, which totals 18,446,744,073,709,550,592 bytes. With Windows 10 version 1709 and Windows Server 2019, the maximum implemented file size is 8 PB minus 2 MB or 9,007,199,252,643,840 bytes.”  Please note that Windows 2016 Server are having these limitations, also. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NTFS)
 
Reference table from http://www.ntfs.com/ntfs_vs_fat.htm:
 

Criteria

NTFS5

NTFS

exFAT

FAT32

Operating System Windows 2000
Windows XP
Windows 2003 Server
Windows 2008
Windows Vista
Windows 7
Windows NT
Windows 2000
Windows XP
Windows 2003 Server
Windows 2008Windows Vista
Windows 7
Windows CE 6.0
Windows Vista SP1
Windows 7
WinXP+KB955704
DOS v7 and higher
Windows 98
Windows ME
Windows 2000
Windows XP
Windows 2003 Server
Windows Vista
Windows 7
 
Max Volume Size 2 ^ 64 clusters – 1 cluster 2 ^ 32 clusters – 1 cluster 128PB 32GB for all OS. 2TB for some OS
Max Files on Volume 4,294,967,295
2 ^ 32 -1
4,294,967,295
2 ^ 32 -1
Nearly Unlimited 4194304
Max File Size 2 ^ 64 bytes 
(16 ExaBytes) minus 1KB
2 ^ 44 bytes 
(16 TeraBytes) minus 64KB
16EB 4GB minus 2 Bytes
Max Clusters Number 2 ^ 64 clusters – 1 cluster 2 ^ 32 clusters – 1 cluster 4294967295 4177918
Max File Name Length Up to 255 Up to 255 Up to 255 Up to 255

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